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Criminal Code of France


Контрольна робота
K-19934

ВАРІАНТ №5
ПЛАН РОБОТИ
1. Прочитайте та письмово перекладіть текст.
2. Поставте 10 запитань до тексту.
3. Складіть речення зі словами, які підкреслені в тексті. Вкажіть час та спосіб, підкресліть підмет та присудок. Перекладіть речення .
4. Підберіть статтю на юридичну тему (на рідній мові). Напишіть англійською мовою про що говориться в статті (- 20 речень). Стаття додається.
5. Напишіть розповідне , питальне (загальне, спеціальне) та заперечне речення в :
Present Indefinite Tense (Active Voice), (Passive Voice). Past Indefinite Tense ( Active Voice), (Passive Voice). Future Indefinite Tense (Active Voice), ( Passive Voice). Напишіть переклад речень.
6. Напишіть тeмy «About Myself» та не менше 8 речень англійською мовою чому ви поступили до ОДУВС.
7. Список літератури.
8. Підпис.

Criminal Code of France
The 1992 Criminal Code of France does not comprise any norms with regard to the purposes of punishment. The French criminal law doctrine expresses various views which are ultimately reduced to the fact that the purposes of punishment are retribution, deterrence, general and special prevention, correction. The numerous norms of three chapters of this Code («Kinds of Penalties)), «The Regime of Penalties», and «Prescription of Penalties and Erasing of Convictions»: art. 131-1 - 133-17) provide for detailed regulation of punishment for felonies, misdemeanors, and petty infractions.
All kinds of sanctions in the effective Criminal Code of France are called punishments which are differentiated as main and supplementary ones and are also subdivided into three types depending on the trinomial classification of criminal acts - criminal punishments for felonies, correctional punishments for misdemeanors, and penalties for petty infractions. Penalties for natural and legal persons are regulated specifically.
Death penalty as a kind of punishment in France was abolished in 1981. In respect of natural persons the Criminal Code of France provides for such main punishments for a crime as felony imprisonment or political detention for life, felony imprisonment from 10 up to no more than 30, 20 or 15 years (article 131-1). It should be mentioned that punishment in the form of felony imprisonment or political detention does not rule out the imposition of punishment in the form of a fine (the maximum amount - 50 million francs), one or several .supplementary punishments. The norm that provides for criminal liability for a particular criminal act comprises only main punishments whereas the supplementary ones are provided for separately, concerning specific groups of criminal acts, they are cited at the end of each chapter. Article 131-10 specifies their application in the general form.
For committing misdemeanors natural persons may be subjected to such main punishments: misdemeanor imprisonment, a fine (the maximum amount being one million francs), a day fine, community service, the penalties privative or restrictive of rights as specified in Article 131-6. The scale of punishments in the form of misdemeanor imprisonment is as follows: no more than 10, 7, 5, 3, 2, 1 years, no more than 6 months (Article 131-4).
When a misdemeanor is punishable by a penalty of imprisonment, a court may impose the penalty of day fines (see Article 131-5), one or more of the penalties privative or restrictive of certain rights (see Article 131-6), with the accused's consent - community service for the period of from 40 up to 240 hours (see Art. 131-8).
For committing petty infractions natural persons may be punished by a fine, punishment in the form of deprivation of rights or restriction on the rights provided for by Art. 131-14. These punishments do not rule out the imposition of one or several supplementary punishments provided for by Articles 131-16 - 131-17 of the French Criminal Code.
The amount of fines for petty infractions is differential on the five classes of petty infractions: not more than 250 francs for a 1st class infraction, 1000 francs for a 2nd class infraction, 3000 francs for a 3rd class infraction, 5,000 francs for a 4th class and 10,000 francs for a 5th class infraction.
In the cases provided for by law concerning any alien guilty of committing a crime or misdemeanor, punishment may be imposed in the form of prohibition to stay in the French territory for a term not exceeding 10 years, which entails expulsion of the convicted person from the country, if necessary, after the expiry of his or her penalty of misdemeanor or felony imprisonment (see Article 131-30), that is deportation.
Article 131-31 provides for a punishment in the form of prohibition to reside, which implies prohibition to appear in the places determined by the court and also includes measures of supervision and furtherance for a certain term. This measure may supplement the actual measure of punishment related to the deprivation of rights.
The following criminal punishments for the committing of felony as well as corrective penalties for misdemeanors are applicable legal persons: a fine the maximum amount of which equals to ivefold statutory fine provided for natural persons, respectively, which is supplemented by the given act (the maximum amount of fine for felony is 250 million francs, for misdemeanor - 5 million francs; in the event of recurrent bringing to criminal responsibility the maximum fine shall be doubled). A possibility is provided to impose one or several punishments: liquidation, prohibition (permanent or for a term not exceeding five years) to exercise directly or indirectly one or several kinds of professional or public activity, judicial supervision for a term not exceeding five years, termination (permanent or for a term not exceeding five years) of all institutions or one or several institutions of the enterprise that were used for the committing of the imputed acts, prohibition (permanent or for a term not exceeding five years) to conclude contracts with state organisations, etc.
Punishments provided for by the French Criminal Code for petty infractions may be also applicable to legal persons.
The 1871 Criminal Code of the FJRX3 identifies main and additional punishments and also additional consequences of the commission of a criminally punishable act. Death penalty as a form of punishment is not envisaged, it has been abolished in accordance with Article 102 of the Constitution of the FRG. The list of the main forms of punishment is very limited: deprivation of liberty and fine. Deprivation of liberty may be life or terminable, the upper limit of which is 15 years, the lower one is one month. Pursuant to the law on military crimes a form of deprivation of liberty for soldiers on term active duty is detention from 3 weeks to 6 months.
Pursuant to the law on juvenile courts the minimum term of deprivation of liberty for juvenile offenders constitutes 6 months, maximum - 5 years, in exceptional cases - 10 years (when a young person committed a crime the punishment for which under the general criminal law exceeds 10 years).
A pecuniary penalty is imposed in daily units amounting from 5, unless the law provides otherwise, to 360 full daily units. A daily unit is determined not less than two and not more than 10,000 Deutsche Marks. The general amount of fine constitutes: minimum (5 rates 2 Marks each) - 10 Marks, maximum (360 rates 10,000 Marks each) - 3 million 600 thousand Marks. In a number of cases, the imposition of a pecuniary penalty is possible along with the deprivation of liberty, which does not change its legal nature as to main punishment. A new form of fine (introduced in 1992 by the Law on Com bating Illicit Drug Trafficking and Other Manifestations of Organized Crime) is a pecuniary penalty that is imposed for mercenary crimes (§43a of the Criminal Code). It is not determined by the system of daily units but constitutes payment of certain money amount prescribed by the court. Property penalty is applied in the case when the perpetrator acted as a member of the criminal gang organized for continuing commission of such crimes as counterfeiting money bills or payment orders, aggravated cases of trafficking in people and women procurement, money laundering, unauthorized organization of illegal gambling, etc. It may be imposed only in conjunction with life imprisonment or deprivation of liberty for a term of over two years and shall not be imposed together with pecuniary penalty.
An additional punishment is prohibition to operate a motor vehicle. Additional consequences are loss of the right to hold public or elected office, and the right to vote. Legal consequences of criminal conduct are forfeiture, confiscation (including confiscation of writings and rendering unserviceable) and compensation.
Measures of rehabilitation and security are a) commitment to a psychiatric hospital; b) commitment to an institution for curing drug addicts and alcoholics; c) commitment to protective custody; d) supervision of conduct; e) withdrawal of driver's license; f) prohibition to engage in a profession.
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