Завдання №1 Open the brackets using the rules of the sequence of tenses and translate into Ukrainian: 1. She was disappointing that she ... (not to get) the job. 2. He said that he ... (to write) a letter for an hour when we came. 3. I thought you ... (to look through) the contract at 5 o'clock yesterday. 4. The teacher said that he ... (to check up) our tests by 11 o'clock the next day. 5. I hoped that I ... (to see) the main engineer the next day.
Завдання №2 Put the following questions into the Indirect Speech:
1. "Why does the price go up so often?" she wondered. 2. "Are you working as good as you are studying?" asked Peter. 3. "Where were you last night, Mr. Jones?" he enquired. 4. "Will you have time to sign the documents?" asked the secretary. 5. "How long have you been here?" asked Mary.
Завдання №3 Turn the statements into the Indirect Speech: 1. "If you give me some time, I'll find you the information about those people," said my cousin.
2. "If you saw my father you would recognise him at once. He is the most extraordinary-looking man," she said to me.
3. The manager said: "We have received a complaint about the prices".
4. The student said to the teacher: "I got most of my information from this book".
5. "I'm not paying for your lunch, Tom", said his friend. "I haven't got any money".
Завдання №4 Turn the following sentences from Active into Passive and translate them into Ukrainian:
1. They were discussing this question at 3 o'clock. 2. My younger sister borrowed my book without asking. 3. She had copied the documents. 4. I'll give him your message as soon as I see him. 5. You can meet here people from different countries.
Завдання №5 Complete the following sentences using the Passive Voice:
1. The equipment ... (deliver). 2. The newspaper ... (publish). 3. The agreement ... (reach). 4. A new rule ... (learn). 5. This story ... (write).
Завдання №6 Translate the following sentences from Ukrainian into English
1. Моя двоюрідна сестра пообіцяла мені, що прийде до мене в гocтi через тиждень. 2. Коли статтю було написано, її віднесли на перегляд редактору. 3. Я не був впевнений в тому, що він поговорив з батьками. 4. Відповідь на його лист буде відправлено через кілька днів. 5. Вони сказали, що економічна ситуація гiршa, ніж вони припускали.
Завдання №7 Rewrite the text and translate it in a written form:
Taxes Tax is a payment exacted on persons, corporations and other economic entities by a government to help pay for government operations or to discourage the consumption of the goods or services taxed by raising their cost. Tax base is the money, property and people on whom taxes could be levied. A government that taxes the rich and exempts the poor is redistributing income. People are taxed on what they earn, on what they spend, and on what they own. Firms are taxed as well as households. Taxes are numerous. So, taxes can be levied on assets, on incomes and on expenditures. Inheritance taxes and gift taxes are taxes on assets. Taxes on incomes are important and can be quite progressive. Taxes on expenditures are related to the monetary value of expenditures: they are known to be regressive. A proportional tax takes amounts of money from people in direct proportion to their income. A regressive tax takes a larger percentage of income from people, the lower their income. A progressive tax takes a larger percentage of income from people, the larger their income. A tax system is said to be progressive if it increases the inequality. The different taxes can be defined. Direct tax is a tax that is levied on expenditure such as a sales tax imposed at the retail level, excise tax, or value added tax. Excise tax - a selective tax -sometimes called a consumption tax — is a tax on certain goods produced within or imported into a country. Sales tax - a tax levied on the exchange of goods and services at one or more stages in the process of distribution.
Завдання №8 Types of Money and Their Nature
In addition to describing money by its functions, one can also describe it by its types. One type is full-bodied commodity money (or just commodity money). This is money that has a value as a commodity fully equal to its value as a medium of exchange. Suppose you have a gold coin that you can melt down to extract the gold. If you can sell this gold for as much as the face value of the coin, then this coin is a commodity money. For most of historical time the money that was used was commodity money, that is, gold and silver for large coins, and a base metal, such as copper, for small change. Traditionally countries have been on a silver standard or a gold standard in which the value of money depended on the value of the metals out of which the coins were made. A variant of commodity money is representative full-bodied money. This is a type of money that usually has almost no intrinsic value, but can be redeemed in full-bodied commodity money. It is just a certificate entitling its owner to receive a certain amount of commodity money. It is at times more convenient to carry such a piece of paper than to carry a mass of heavy gold coins. Then there is credit money. This is money that does not have a value as a commodity fully equal to its monetary value, and can¬not be redeemed in such full-bodied money. U.S. money is a credit money; you cannot go to the Treasury and obtain gold or silver coins in exchange for your paper money. Our currency is legal tender. This means that it has to be ac¬cepted in payment of a debt unless the debt instrument itself specifi¬cally provides for another form of payment, such as, for example, the delivery of commodities. A deposit, on the other hand, is not legal tender. A creditor does not have to accent a check and can demand to be paid in currency instead. However, whether or not something is legal tender is not the criterion of whether it is money. As long as it is generally accepted in exchange, or used as a stan¬dard of value, we call it money. An advantage of credit money over other forms of money is that it economizes on scarce resources. Instead of using gold or sil¬ver, items with a high cost of production, we use items with trivial production costs, entries on a bank's books (for deposits), paper (for currency notes), or, in the case of coins, some base metals. Money is a token entitling the bearer to draw on the economy's goods and services, and what makes each of us willing to accept it is that we know that other people are willing to accept it in exchange for their goods and services. It does not need to have any value as a com¬modity in its own right any more than the admission ticket to a con¬cert has to be capable of producing music. This is not to foreclose the issue of whether or not full-bodied money, such as gold coins, or representative full-bodied money is preferable to credit money. While the quantity of a commodity money is governed by the availability of the commodity, the gov¬ernment controls the quantity of credit money, Opinions can rea¬sonably differ on whether it is better to have the quantity of money controlled by accidents such as the discovery of new gold fields, or by the government. Some believe that governments, unrestrained by a gold standard or some other rule, tend to increase the quantity of money too fast, so that we get inflation. They do this because in the short run raising the quantity of money rapidly has very pleasant results: unemployment falls and so does the interest rate. Credit money requires considerable sophistication. People have It) grasp the idea that something is valuable if other people will treat it as valuable, despite the fact that it has no value in direct use as a commodity. Not surprisingly, therefore, credit money is a relatively recent innovation. While there had been previous episodes of credit money, most of the developed countries were on a gold standard as recently as 1930. In general, as one would expect, the evolution of money has been from concrete objects to abstract symbols, that is, from precious metals traded by weight, through coins made of precious metals, to paper money redeemable in precious coins, and toirredeemable paper money and bank deposits. But evolution has not followed a straight line For example, goldsmiths deposits, which were essentially checks, were used as a means of payment in seventeenth-century England at a time when paper money was not yet acceptable.
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